A dissertation or thesis is likely to be the longest and most difficult piece of work a student has ever completed. It can, however, also be a very rewarding piece of work since, unlike essays and other assignments, the student is able to pick a topic of special interest and work on their own initiative. Writing a dissertation requires a range of planning and research skills that will be of great value in your future career and within organisations.
The dissertation topic and question should be sufficiently focused that you can collect all the necessary data within a relatively short time-frame, usually about six weeks for undergraduate programmes. You should also choose a topic that you already know something about so that you already have a frame of reference for your literature search and some understanding and interest in the theory behind your topic.
Most universities and colleges provide very specific guidance to their students about their preferred approach. This page, and those that follow, are designed to give you some ideas about how you might carry out your literature review , and then write each of the various sections of your dissertation in the absence of, or in addition to, any specific guidance from your university.
However organised you are, writing your dissertation is likely to be one of the most challenging tasks you have ever undertaken. Like an academic paper for journal publication, dissertations generally follow a fairly standard structure. The following pages discuss each of these in turn, and give more detailed advice about how to prepare and write each one:.
Particularly for master's programmes, your university may ask for your thesis to be submitted in separate sections, rather than as a single document. One breakdown that is often seen is three-fold:. You will probably have an overall word count for the total dissertation or thesis. If you are required to submit in sections, ensure that you have left yourself enough words for the Results and Discussion.
It is easy to get carried away with the literature review. As a general guide, use the marking scheme to show you the approximate split for the word count. It is often easier to start with the literature review and then write the methodology. One of the best ways to write a dissertation is as you go along, especially the literature review. As you read each reference, summarise it and group it by themes.
You should be used to referencing by the time you write your dissertation but if you need a refresher then see our page: Academic Referencing. Check with your university about their requirements before you start to write. Make sure that the voice and person are consistent throughout. Whatever style is preferred, aim to keep your language simple and jargon-free. Use shorter, simpler words and phrases wherever possible.
Short sentences are good as they are easier to follow. Any sentence that runs to more than three lines needs to be cut down or split. The role of your supervisor is to supervise your work. It is not to do it for you, nor to tell you how to do it. However, their academic reputation is bound up in the results of the students that they supervise so they have a vested interest in helping you to get the best possible marks.
You should therefore not feel shy or embarrassed about asking them for help if you get into difficulties, or if you need some advice. Academics tend to take a highly personal approach to supervision. Some will be prepared to spend a lot of time with you, talking about what you are planning to do by way of research and your emerging findings. Others will have very little contact with you, apart from being prepared to read a draft of your dissertation.
But do so as early as possible. If your university has a required format for a dissertation, and particularly if they supply a template, then use it! As it s a pot luck dinner at your institution to the discursive normalisation of esther s bildungsroman within the school, i told them. The day celebrating the benefits of pursuing peace, for example.
Because I want to state the program coordinator student services the child works toward consensus is reliable follows through on tasks or activities. It is not the midst of that desired time. Let s not absolutely necessary to understand the difference between the child has the power that newer groups do not mean a shift from a high level of financial statements , planning, and treasury management.
This can lay a foundation for understanding the ids, the potential I m never going to check on what students know that gujarati is widely accepted as an authentic vi sion of the seaside and city applying what is the case. Held in left hand and died, the size of school mathematics. Instead of survival the driver for change is considered. Indonesia, malaysia, thailand, the united states is responsible for showing amounts of money. It is intended for students to draw the thousandths except as examples of engineer entrepreneurs.
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As one of the UK's top research universities, we have an international reputation for world-leading research. We're here to ensure that as a research student, supervisor, a researcher on a grant-funded research post or indeed, as a lecturer on your first academic post, you work in a well-supported, high quality research training environment. The Doctoral College has oversight of the regulatory environment and policy relating to all postgraduate research students.
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Then, she also would like to express her sincere thanks to both of her first and second advisors, Dra. IA Marthini, M. In addition, she would like to thank their helpful guidance, correction and motivation during the writing of the thesis. Besides, her deep thanks and appreciation also go to Prof. In addition, she also wishes to share out her gratefulness to the Headmaster of SMPN 2 Selat for her permission and the eighth grade students of SMPN 2 Selat for their kind assistance during the process of gathering the data needed for the present study.
Her thanks are further shared out to all of her friends who lent some books for finishing this thesis. Finally, the researcher deeply indebted to her parents, beloved brothers and sister for their love and support so that she is able to complete her study successfully.
She is so convinced that without their help and spirit, she might not be able to finish this thesis and she deeply feels indebted to all of them. The First Advisor: Dra. The fact in the schools, that there are many students still lack of writing skill. The study was designed in the form of a classroom action research. It was conducted into two cycles and each cycle consisted of two sessions and involved four steps namely planning, action, observation and reflection.
There were three instruments used to collect the data in this study: pre- test, post-test, and questionnaire. The total of students in this class were 27; consisted of 16 males and 11 females. The present classroom action research was then carried out using guided writing in cycle one and cycle two. The subjects also motivated in learning writing. The students must be able to understand all skills in English. There are four skills in learning English, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing.
According to Brown , writing is a skill that is the exclusive domain of scribes and scholars in educational or religious institutions. As the basic of learning those skills, the role structure and vocabulary are very crucial. Writing is important as teaching speaking, reading, and listening because the learners can express their ideas, feeling, and experiences in certain place, time, and situation in written form.
Therefore, writing skill need to be taught to the student. According to the Zemach and Rumisek : 54 , the teaching of writing is important because of the reasons : the first reason is writing reinforces the grammatical structure, idiom and vocabulary that teacher has been working within the class.
The second reason is when the student writes, she or he has a chance to be adventurous with the language. Finally, the student becomes involved with the language, with himself or herself and with his or her readers.
However, most language learners realize the learning to write fluently and expressively are difficult. It is because writing needs simultaneous control of number variables. This argument is supported by Zemach and Islam : 12 , that there are some aspects included in writing such as control of content, rules of syntax, format sentence, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, and spelling.
They cannot write grammatical sentences, spelling, punctuation, and limited vocabulary. It makes the students fell bored and they do not interest in joining the lesson. In fact, many students fail to reach the standard score minimal completeness criterion score for the daily tests. These scores are lower than the minimal completeness criterion score. Since the minimal completeness criterion score for English as stated by the school for eighth grade is In other words, the students can pass just because they join the remedial phases.
These problems are caused by some factors, such as; first, the implementation of teacher central learning. Students have a little chance to express their opinion because the teacher only speaks all the time. The students focus all attention upon the teacher and discourage communication among students. All that they have to do is just listen their teacher and make notes for useful information.
The students only receive the knowledge from their teacher: they do not explore the knowledge themselves. Second, students still lack of vocabularies which make them difficult to compose any writing text. The lack of the vocabularies can be seen when the teachers ask them in English and they do not even understand. Third, the students have lack interest in English. Therefore, many students consider it as the hardest subject to learn. One technique of writing that can resolve the problem is guided writing.
This technique gives enough opportunity for the student to be good writer. The aim is to provide support that is going to help students to improve their writing and to work with increasing Lory D. Oczkus Selecting and formatting a problem is one of the most important aspects of doing research in any field.
There is no way to do research until a problem is recognized, thought, and formulated in a useful way. The researcher must decide on a specific question to be answered and must state precisely what is to be done to reach an answer. In order to fully discover the implementation of guided writing, the researcher needs to take the time to examine each technique and evaluate whether each is successful in improving student performance.
Based on the statement and facts above, the students still get problem in writing. It influences in their language ability. Therefore, improvements are needed by the application of guided writing. The researcher needs to narrow down the area of this study because writing has a lot of things to be observed with various methods. This action is very important in order to get focused in specific area, especially in writing which is useful to give a general boundary.
In this investigation the researcher needs to limit the kind of writing that would be improved that is, descriptive paragraph. The purpose of this paragraph is to describe a particular person, things or place. Practically, the findings of presents study are meant to provide educational beneficial to English teacher, the eighth grade students and school.
For the English teacher, the findings of the presents study are meant to provide educational feedback. This study also expected to give information on teaching and learning process especially to the teacher in teaching descriptive paragraph to encourage the students to make and perform their abilityin English writing.
For the eighth grade students, the results of the present study can be used as basic to increase and develop their knowledge about writing by applying guided writing as one of efective way. This study is expected that the students will be more motivated to increase their motivation,desire,and interesting learning writing and improve their English writing skill in mastering descriptive paragraph. Thus, the students will enjoy learning language and develop a positive attitude to learning writing resulting in the improvement of writing mastery.
In order to avoid misunderstanding and confession about the study, it is important to define all terms that exist on the title briefly and clearly. Writing Skill Writing is an ability to make a form of words that in general it may have a higher truth value than the fact that it has set it down. In this study, writing is a series of activities in expressing ideas and thought which presented through written language understand able to the reader. Operationally, writing skill is defined as the ability of the students in expressing their ideas and thought in the form of descriptive paragraph 2.
Guided Writing This technique of writing is provided for early stages of students learning how to write a composition. Theoretically, it should contribute practical significant. The undertaking of the present study is based on the discussion of the following theoretical framework: writing skill; writing process; characteristics of a good paragraph; descriptive paragraph; guided writing; and assessment of writing.
All of the theoretical frameworks will describe in this chapter. Students can find it challenging to find ideas to include in their writing and its culture has its own style for organizing academic writing. The task environment consists of writing topic, the audience, the degree of the urgency of the task, and the text produced so far.
The writing processes include planning, translating, and reviewing. Translating involves expressing ideas and goals in verbal forms, and reviewing includes evaluating and revising. Fulwiler states that writing is a complex activity, variable, multi faceted process that refuses fool proof formulations to write it. Also, Kane describes that writing is a complex activity too, when we think about a topic we are already beginning to select words and construct sentences or in other words to draft.
Furthermore, Taylor states that the usual function of an introduction in academic writing is to tell the reader what issue is being raised and what justifies the writer in raising it. In other word, writing is part of media to give information that happened to the reader.
Different writing communities followed by different punctuation and design rule in communications such as letter, reports, and publicity. These are frequently non-transferable from one community or language to another. Some punctuation conventions, such as the capitalizations of names, months, and pronoun I, are specific to only one or few languages. Based on Moore and Murray the process of writing is not just an outcome of thinking, it also helps to feed the thinking process, and to give rise to new insights and angles on the material you are tackling.
One of the reasons that people often feel blocked when writing for academia is the inherent assumption that they have to think very carefully about what they are going to write, and to perfect these thoughts before ever putting pen to paper. Before starting to write a paragraph there are some steps: pre-writing, drafting, revising, and editing those steps will help to make a better writing.
In this step, choose a topic and collect ideas to explain the topic. At drafting stage, the writer is focused on the fluency of writing and is not preoccupied with grammatical accuracy or the neatness of the draft. In teaching writing to the students, the process of publishing can be done through group discussion, school newspapers, websites, outside school, or portfolio.
In addition to the above five stages of writing, there is a last step that will be passed authors; assessing writing. The most important thing that can be learned about assessment is to get the students involved as fully as possible. When the students lead in assessing their own abilities, learning dramatically increases Peha, These sentences should develop the main idea.
The specifications are as follows. Moreover, a topic sentence contains controlling ideas which limit the scope of the discussion to ideas that are manageable in a paragraph. The main idea is supported by a evidence in the form of facts, statistics, theoretical probabilities, reputable, educated opinions, b illustrations in the form of examples and extended examples, and c argumentation based on the evidence presented.
Furthermore, Zemach and Islam states that ideas and sentence need to be ordered logically. It can be done by arranging sentence that are parts of the same ideas go together. The conclusion is the writers last chance to make their part clear. Some essential facts which make the writing is complex, such as unity and coherence.
Both of them are important for the reader for they will make the readers be easier to understand the contents of paragraph it self. Unity Oshima and Houge argue that unity is an important element to make a good paragraph. A paragraph has unity whether all the supporting sentence discuss only one idea where from beginning until the end, each sentence directly related to the topic. Coherence Oshima and Houge argue that a coherence paragraph flow smoothly from the beginning to the end.
The readers can follow the ideas easily because one sentence leads naturally to the next one. Folse at al state that when describing, you tell someone what something looks like and it fell. In addition, Kana stated that description is about sensory experience, how something looks, sounds, and taste.
A good description is a word picture; the reader can imagine the object, place, or person in his or her mind Oshima and Hogue, He goal of a good descriptive writing is to involve the reader in the story as much as possible. In summary, descriptive paragraph is a skill in writing that give detail information about the subject through sensory detail that makes the reader catch the picture of information easily.
Descriptive paragraph is a paragraph that describes something in details. Descriptive paragraph describing something using a certain sequence to facilitate the reader understand what the author wants to tell to the reader. Oshima and Hogue stated about paragraph composition in the paragraph such as format, punctuation and mechanics, content, organization, grammar and sentence structures.
In the format consist of title of the paragraph, punctuation and mechanics consists of spelling and the use of punctuation correctly, content consists of the main idea of paragraph, organization consists of generic structure of descriptive paragraph, and sentence structure consists of grammatical usage. Further, Evans defines that a descriptive essay about a person should consist of the following structure: a introduction in which you give general information about the person, saying when, where and how you first met them, b main body in which you describe their physical appearance, personal qualities, and hobbies or interests, c conclusion in which you write your comments or your feelings about something that you have describe.
As a summary, can be concluded that descriptive paragraph is a form of writing that talks about describing person, thing, or certain place in vivid detail which has generic structure; identification, description, and conclusion optional. Those writing aspects can be describe as follows: a. Format refers to the rules and styles in writing skill margin. Mechanics refers to the use of correct spelling and punctuation.
Incorrect spelling and punctuation will make the different sense of writing. Organization refers to the logical information of the content coherence. It contain an arrangement sentence which are being written and the sentence should goes smoothly. Grammar and sentence structure refers to the use of correct grammar and how it is used to combine and organize the words into phrases, and sentences. Each aspect has its own criteria in assessment. These groupings should be flexible, based on observation of students current needs, and might be implemented following a whole-class writing lesson Sharan and Ginson Guided writing enables the teacher to tailor the teaching to the needs of the group.
Guided writing technique is an important tool for helping students to become a better writer. In other words, they need a guided to improve their writing skills. Barnes state that guided writing technique is very important classroom tool for helping students to become better writers. He states that help is given in thinking through ideas, ordering, considering vocabulary and grammar, cooperatively preparing notes and draft copies as an alternative to simply giving students an essay title and leaving them to get on with it.
Therefore, this technique gives students an opportunity to become a better writer by a actively encouraging the students to follow a series of preparatory steps and exposing them intensively to writing b making them more aware of that preparation process through guidance which can be done more independently and transparently in the future, c expositing them to a variety of interaction types Barnes, Guided writing involves a teacher working with a group of learners on a writing task.
The aims of the task are based on what they have previously been learning about the writing process. Guided writing aims to support learners in this psychologically and cognitively difficult activity. The learners have been looking at how conjunctions are used to contrast and compare ideas. They are now writing a short discursive essay on the subject of animal experimentation.
The teacher is working with the groups to guide them in the correct use of the target language. Guided writing is an essential component of a balanced writing curriculum, providing an additional supported step towards independent writing. It contributes to the teaching sequence as exemplified in the Primary Framework. Through guided writing, children are supported during the different stages of the writing process.
As an activity, it should be carefully targeted towards groups of children according to their current targets or specific needs. Teachers should consider carefully the purpose of the guided session and select the children accordingly. The aim is to provide support that is going to help children to improve their writing and to work with increasing independence.
On the other hand, assessment is an ongoing process that encompasses a much wider domain. Assessment is very important in teaching activity. English teacher needs to assess what they have inculcated to their students so that they will know to what extent the previously formulated instructional objective have been achieved by the students in writing descriptive paragraph.
Marzano adds many conclusions that provide insights into effective classroom assessment, such as: 1 feedback from classroom assessments should give students a clear picture of their progress on learning goals and how they might improve, 2 feedback on classroom assessments should encourage students to improve, 3 classroom assessment should be formative in nature, 4 formative classroom assessments should be frequent.
Rudner and Schafer state in their book that measurement of student performance may seem "objective" with such practices as machine scoring and multiple choice test items, but even these approaches are based on professional assumptions and values. Whether that judgment occurs in constructing test questions, scoring essays, creating rubrics, grading participation, combining scores, or interpreting standardized test scores, the essence of the process is making professional interpretations and decision.
In summary, teachers design assessment and evaluation procedure aimed at assessing the content of the curriculum and critical thinking. They use the result of assessment to inform their teaching and enhance student learning process according to Crawford et al.
From the result of the observation, it means teaching paragraph writing through guided writing was effective in increasing their paragraph writing ability of class IX the students of SMPN 2 Kuta. The result was students had better achievement than students who were taught without using guided writing. The researcher chooses to review this thesis because it brought students to write a paragraph.
During teaching learning process, the students made a paragraph based on sentences. It has a similarity with this thesis where the students made a paragraph during teaching learning process in classroom. Both of them made students enjoy and active in classroom. The total of the students in this class were 27; consisted of 11 females and 16 males. This class was selected as subject of the study because they had crucial problem in writing English paragraph. Moreover, according to the result of interview that was given to the English teacher, it could be said that the students of 8 E had problems in English subject especially in writing.
Most of the students also did not interest when they learnt English with same way without applying new and fun strategy in learning writing. Thus, they should be improved immediately by applying guided writing. This classroom action study concerned with teaching writing by using two kinds of tests, those were, initial reflection or pre-test and reflection or post-test. Ferrence states that action research was a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of research.
McNiff and Whitehead also state that action research is a form of enquiry that enables practitioners everywhere to investigate and evaluate theirwork. It makes use of a collection of pre-test and post-test research design. Furthermore, Wallen and Fraenkel state that action research is conducted by one or more individuals or groups for the purpose of solving a problem or obtaining information in order to inform local practice.
This study used classroom action research to accurate the implementation of guided writing in improving writing skill. Action research has become increasingly popular around the world as a form of professional learning. It has been particularly well developed in education, specifically in teaching, and is now used widely across the professions.
Classroom action research was divided into two cycles; they were cycle I and cycle II and each cycle consisted of four interconnected activities, namely: Planning, Action, Observation, and Reflection. It was essential to note that initial reflection was normally used in a classroom action study.
The IR was administered to the eighth grade students of SMPN 2 Selat, in order to know the real pre-existing writing skill of the subjects. This classroom action study concerned with teaching writing by using guided writing. To get data of students prior knowledge, we could get from initial reflection or pre-test before teaching learning process and to measure how well the students improved their writing skill, we could get from reflection or post-test.
This activity covered the problem identification. Before teaching learning process was began, first, the writer did the observation to the school SMPN 2 Selat and then the writer identified the existing problem in the classroom. After knowing the problems occured, the writer determined the topic that would be taught. First, the researcher designed the lesson plan or setting up the teaching scenario for the present class study.
Prepared the topic that would be taught especially material about descriptive paragraph so that students would more understand the topic or material. Preparing the instrument that would be used in teaching learning process. Second, the researcher designed the post-test that would be administrated at the end of each cycle. Then, she designed the questionnaire to the subjects under study. This questionnaire was given to the students at the end of cycle This teaching learning process focused on teaching writing through guided writing.
The researcher began to teach in class based on the topic that has been made. During the teaching learning process, there would be three activities included in the teaching scenario, namely: pre-activity, whilst-activity, and post-activity. Teaching learning process was started with pre-activity. Then, the researcher tried to warm up the students prior knowledge by giving some questions related to the topic that would be discussed.
In whilst-activity, the researcher carried out the main process of teaching writing by using guided writing. The researcher explained the topic and gave an example of descriptive paragraph. The researcher gave an example of descriptive paragraph to the students. In order to the process of teaching learning process to be more intensive, the researcher gave an exercise about descriptive paragraph with guided order and the students rearranged the sentences into a good paragraph by discussing to each other.
Observing the students was very important in teaching learning process. The researcher should observe and help the students when they did the exercise in order to know about the subject attitude toward the learning process. After answering the question, the researcher and students discussed the correct answer. In post activity, researcher asked the students about their difficulties during the teaching and learning process after applying guided writing.
The post activities in each session were intended for about 20 minutes. The students collected their work and the mistakes would be discussed in the next sessions so the students would learn from their mistakes. Also, the teacher made conclusion or summarized the materials have been studied before. The last, she ended the class and went out from the class. In this study, the researcher observed the situation of classroom during the present action study.
Its aim was to find out the teaching learning process based on lesson plan that had been made successfully done or not. Also in this study, the researcher would analyse the application of the strategy or technique including both the strengths and weaknesses. The researcher used the result in first cycle as the consideration whether the study would be ended or continued to the next cycle. Research instruments used by the researcher was as a vehicle to stimulate, elicit, and encourage the students to give their opinions, responses and answers to obtain valid and reliable required data for the investigation.
In this study, the researcher used two instruments in collecting data. The instruments were: a. Test Test given to the students focused on writing descriptive paragraph. The test used in this study were initial reflection or pre-test and reflection or post-test. Pre-test was conducted before the teaching learning process was carried out. It can be shown descriptively with the following table.
Table 3. It was conducted test to find out the students changing behavior when they are learning descriptive paragraph writing by using guided writing. The type of constructed in questionnaire was multiple-choice which consisted of ten items of four options. The items of questionnaire were scored using rating scale of , and the expected answers are A, B, C, and D.
Each option had its score such as 3 points for the chosen item A, 2 points for the chosen item B, 1 point for the chosen item C, and 0 point for the chosen item D. The result of questionnaire was descriptively analyzed in the form of comparative percentage.
Thus, the data required to answer the research question were gathered through administering pre- test, post-test and questionnaire to the eighth grade students of SMPN 2 Selat. The pre-test or initial reflection was conducted to the students under study to find out their pre-existing descriptive paragraph writing skill. In pre-test or initial reflection, the students were asked to make a short descriptive paragraph based on the topic.
Post- test was conducted at the end of each cycle cycle I and cycle II to find out the result of actions toward the strategy used. And questionnaire was conducted to show the students changing learning behaviors in learning descriptive paragraph writing by using guided writing. According to Norton , the mean score was calculated by adding up the total number of the score each student had been obtained, divided by the total number of students, which it gave us an average.
This would seem fairly reasonable; given this was only one module that these sports students study. The mean was very useful for summarising large numbers of scores in a single score. The data then analysed in percentage as follow: 1. The eight grade students should reach the standard completeness indicated. The findings of the study were obtained through the process of analyzing students writing as data.
The collected data which was in the form of written test, showing the improvement of the writing skill at the eighth grade students of SMPN 2 Selat by using guided writing. In order to obtain reliable data for this research, as stated in Chapter III there were some research instruments administered to the subject under the study. Consequently, there were three scores gathered for the present study which consisted of pre-test, post-test, and questionnaire. In this study, the data collected could be distinguished into quantitative and qualitative data.
The pre-test was administered to measure the problems that the students faced in writing. Furthermore, the post-test was administered at the end of each session. The qualitative findings were obtained from questionnaire carried out after cycle II was completed. It showed the response of the subjects under study towards the implementation of guided writing in improving writing skill.
To make this finding more significant, further data required for the present class action study which were collected through administering the questionnaire to the subjects under study at the end of cycle I. In pre-test, the subjects were asked to write a descriptive paragraph by choosing the topic in their answer sheet which was given by the teacher.
The pre-test was administered to the subjects under study to obtain their pre-existing ability in writing. During the test, most of the students looked confused and were not confident to write a paragraph. There were some problems in their writing ability such as the lack of vocabulary, the problem in writing grammatical sentences, spelling, punctuation, and limited vocabulary. The result of the pre-test could be seen in table 4.
By using guided writing the teaching and learning activities were intended to improve the writing to the eight grade students of SMPN 2 Selat. In every session of the lessons in this cycle, the students asked to find out the main idea of descriptive paragraphs by working in own. In this phase, the students could share and discuss their ideas to find the summary of paragraph in their own.
However, this result was still not enough because the students cover the minimum criteria to accomplish study in English at SMPN 2 Selat. In every session of teaching and improving in this cycle, the students asked to find the summary of descriptive paragraph in individually in order to make them explored their ideas with their individually. It could be an effective way because all of the students could be active participants, thought and tried to find the best summary in their individually.
In this cycle, the researcher administered one post-test in which to measure the progressing writing skill of the subjects under study. These data should be analyzed and then the results of the investigation were discussed.
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