One really nice thing about writing lab reports is that they almost always follow a very specific format, so there's no question about what information goes first, second, third, etc. Lab reports generally have seven main parts:. Title The title is a brief summary of the main ideas in the paper. It should be between 5 and 12 words long.
If you studied a particular species in your experiment, make sure you include that in the title. If the study was a field study done in a specific location, that should also be mentioned. The title should have enough details that any person could read it and know just what the study was about. But you don't need too many details, since you'll be talking about them in the paper itself. For example, a study on the numbers of bird species found in Phoenix parks might be called "Species of birds in Phoenix city parks.
Imagine you did an experiment in which you grew five different groups of rose bushes, and each group received a different amount of fertilizer. Which of the following would be the best title for this lab report? The effect of fertilizer on the growth of rose bushes.
Rose bushes with large amount of fertilizer grow better than rose bushes with small amount of fertilizer. Plants and fertilizer. A This title is short and to the point, with just the right amount of detail. The abstract is a short summary of the main ideas found in the lab report.
Numerical data obtained from your procedure usually presented as a table. Data encompasses what you recorded when you conducted the experiment. It's just the facts, not any interpretation of what they mean. Describe in words what the data means. Sometimes the Results section is combined with the Discussion. The Data section contains numbers; the Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers.
This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation. You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved. Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means.
Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title. Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis, the dependent variable the one you are measuring is on the Y-axis. Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report: the first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc.
If your research was based on someone else's work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references. Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels.
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If you have more ideas, you can add even more radiating thoughts. Eventually, with this type of organization, an idea for your title will begin to coalesce; you will begin to see what is important and what is not. Click to right justify your cursor on line one of your page leaving a one-inch top margin. Type a shortened version of your title, space five times, then type in the numeral one; these first two or three words of the title is called its "short title.
Type in the full title of your report on the center of your paper, capitalizing the first letter of each major word as you would in a story or book title. The title, which can take up to two lines, should be no more than twelve words long. Insert a double space below the title and type in your first name, middle initial and last name. Do not include titles such as Dr. Because your goal is to make your title professional, make sure you have no spelling or grammatical errors.
A technician, lab assistant, or field assistant might need to acquire intensive training and certification only in the specialized tasks that the job entails. Professorships require a doctorate in the subject. Jobs in academia usually involve teaching, but some positions are focused on research projects. The actual job title seldom reflects the distinction. However, tenure-track jobs of any kind in academia are on the decline. Titles include professor, assistant professor, adjunct professor, and lecturer.
Technicians, assistants, field researchers, and interns also belong to academia if they work for professors. Such positions are usually filled by graduate students, who may or may not be paid. Many science jobs in government involve working for regulatory agencies at the federal, state, or even local level. These science job titles include ecologist, water resource specialist, and aquatic animal health inspector.
Some government agencies, such as the military or the National Park Service, conduct their own scientific research. Titles for these positions often include military or civil service rank. Businesses in fields such as pharmaceuticals, engineering, wetland remediation, logging, mining, and fossil fuels employ scientists of various specializations.
Non-profit organizations, especially those in the environmental and medical fields, employ scientists as researchers or educators, to help interpret current research and to draft organizational policy. Many jobs requiring scientific knowledge do not fit into any of the above categories. These include science teachers, research librarians, science writers and journalists, and science educators.
For some scientists, a career path that begins in the field winds up in management or administration, or even politics. Thus, there are fully qualified scientists who have job titles such as director of outreach and member services or vice president of alumni relations.
This comprehensive list of job titles in the science industry can help you narrow down your career interests. It will certainly give you an appreciation of the breadth of the field. Bureau of Labor Statistics.