Most assignments tell you exactly what the frame of reference should be, and most courses supply sources for constructing it. If you encounter an assignment that fails to provide a frame of reference, you must come up with one on your own. A paper without such a context would have no angle on the material, no focus or frame for the writer to propose a meaningful argument. Grounds for Comparison. Let's say you're writing a paper on global food distribution, and you've chosen to compare apples and oranges.
Why these particular fruits? Why not pears and bananas? The rationale behind your choice, the grounds for comparison , lets your reader know why your choice is deliberate and meaningful, not random. For instance, in a paper asking how the "discourse of domesticity" has been used in the abortion debate, the grounds for comparison are obvious; the issue has two conflicting sides, pro-choice and pro-life.
In a paper comparing the effects of acid rain on two forest sites, your choice of sites is less obvious. A paper focusing on similarly aged forest stands in Maine and the Catskills will be set up differently from one comparing a new forest stand in the White Mountains with an old forest in the same region. You need to indicate the reasoning behind your choice. The grounds for comparison anticipates the comparative nature of your thesis.
As in any argumentative paper, your thesis statement will convey the gist of your argument, which necessarily follows from your frame of reference. But in a compare-and-contrast, the thesis depends on how the two things you've chosen to compare actually relate to one another. Do they extend, corroborate, complicate, contradict, correct, or debate one another? In the most common compare-and-contrast paper—one focusing on differences—you can indicate the precise relationship between A and B by using the word "whereas" in your thesis:.
Whereas Camus perceives ideology as secondary to the need to address a specific historical moment of colonialism, Fanon perceives a revolutionary ideology as the impetus to reshape Algeria's history in a direction toward independence. Whether your paper focuses primarily on difference or similarity, you need to make the relationship between A and B clear in your thesis.
This relationship is at the heart of any compare-and-contrast paper. Organizational Scheme. Your introduction will include your frame of reference, grounds for comparison, and thesis. There are two basic ways to organize the body of your paper.
If you think that B extends A, you'll probably use a text-by-text scheme; if you see A and B engaged in debate, a point-by-point scheme will draw attention to the conflict. Be aware, however, that the point-by- point scheme can come off as a ping-pong game. You can avoid this effect by grouping more than one point together, thereby cutting down on the number of times you alternate from A to B.
But no matter which organizational scheme you choose, you need not give equal time to similarities and differences. In fact, your paper will be more interesting if you get to the heart of your argument as quickly as possible. Thus, a paper on two evolutionary theorists' different interpretations of specific archaeological findings might have as few as two or three sentences in the introduction on similarities and at most a paragraph or two to set up the contrast between the theorists' positions.
If there is a balance of similarities and differences, you might concentrate on discussing this balance. Imagine you are examining Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant, both Civil War generals. In your list you have uncovered important points of dissimilarity between them. Those points are their background, personalities, and underlying aspirations. Call these three points A, B, and C. You have decided to contrast the two subjects. Here is one way to organize the body of this paper, addressing points A, B, and C for each subject.
This paper will follow parallel order—A, B, and then C—for each subject:. Lee's background B. Lee's personality C. Lee's underlying aspirations. Grant's background B. Grant's personality C. Grant's underlying aspirations. Lee's underlying aspiration C. Grant's underlying aspiration. For a shorter paper, the above might represent three paragraphs; if you are writing a long paper and have a great deal of information, you may choose to write about each point, A, B, and C, in separate paragraphs for a total of six.
However you decide to organize, make sure it is clear why you are examining this subject. You might be able to compare apples and oranges, for example, but why would you? Include any insights or opinions you have gathered. And yes, in general, three is the magic number. While there is no hard-and-fast rule that precludes creating a paper based on two points, or four, or five, a three-point discussion is manageable, especially for complex or abstract subjects.
At the same time, a three-point structure helps you avoid oversimplifying, especially when addressing controversial topics in which discussions tend to become polarized—right or wrong, black or white, for or against. Three-point treatments encourage discussion of the middle ground. Signaling transitions Learn to use expressions that precisely convey contrast or comparison. These expressions, or transitions, signal contrast:. Signal words such as these help the reader understand the relationships between your sentences, paragraphs, and ideas.
In particular, if you are both comparing and contrasting, signal words help sort out what's what. This paper will follow parallel order—A, B, and then C—for each subject: A. Lee's underlying aspirations A. Grant's underlying aspirations However, here is another way to organize the same paper: A.
Lee's background A.
The tax reform debate: GST and other options. Radicalisation and Violent Extremism: Causes and Responses. Multiculturalism: Key Issues and Sources. Future workforce trends in NSW: Emerging technologies and their potential impact. Aboriginal cultural heritage protection: proposed reforms. The Greater Sydney Commission.
Northern Beaches labour force trends. Ryde labour force trends. Central Coast labour force trends. Private rental housing and security of tenure. Affordable rental housing: current policies and options. Older prisoners: trends and challenges. Affordable rental housing: the problem and its causes. Hunter Valley labour force trends. Illawarra labour force trends. WestConnex: a timeline of key developments. Strata law reforms in NSW. Funding Opportunities for Community Groups.
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The High Court's decision in the electoral funding law case. Alcohol-related violence: key sources. Mandatory sentencing laws. House prices, ownership and affordability: trends in New South Wales. Drought in NSW. Gas: resources, industry structure and domestic reservation policies.
Anti gang laws in Australia. NSW planning reforms: decision-making. NSW planning reforms: building regulation and certification. Corruption offences. NSW planning reforms: sustainable development. NSW planning reforms: infrastructure. Crimes Amendment Zoe's Law Bill Home Education in NSW. Constitutional recognition of local government. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Inaugural speeches in the NSW Parliament. Plastic bags: an update. Permanency planning and adoption of children in out-of-home care.
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Right to Silence. Western Sydney: An Economic Profile. Inspector of Custodial Services Bill Provocation and self-defence in intimate partner and sexual advance homicides. Measuring Wellbeing. The High Court's decision in the School Chaplains case: findings and implications.
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History of development contributions under the NSW planning system. Offshore petroleum exploration and mining. Agriculture in the Sydney region: historical and current perspectives. Regulation of the coal seam gas industry in NSW.
Plantation forestry in NSW: regulatory regimes and future prospects. Budget Forecasts and Outcomes. Arts Funding in NSW. A statistical snapshot of crime and justice in NSW. Issues Backgrounder: The Surrogacy Bill Issues Backgrounder: Euthanasia. Petitioning Parliament. Waste: Comparative Data and Management Frameworks. Sydney and Melbourne: An Economic Overview. Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal People. Bail law: developments, debate and statistics.
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Homelessness in NSW. Parliamentary privilege: first principles and recent applications. Privatisation of prisons update. Charter of Rights Update. Recent Developments in Abortion Law. Ethanol and biodiesel. Political Donations Law Update. Asylum Seekers. Liquor, Licenses and Lockouts. Road Congestion Charging. Emissions Trading.
Internet Censorship and Mandatory Filtering. Child Pornography Law Update. Intoxication and the Criminal Law. Local Government in New South Wales. Oil Supply and Petrol Prices. Child Pornography Law. Transport Problems Facing Large Cities. The Regulation of Lobbying. Marine Protected Areas. Privacy: The Current Situation.
Carbon Capture and Storage. Liquor Licensing Laws: An Update. Older drivers: a review of licensing requirements and research findings. New South Wales Election Results Manufacturing and Services in NSW. Domestic Violence in NSW. Women, Parliament and the Media. Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading.
Recent Developments in Planning Legislation. Reducing the Risk of Recidivism. Law and order legislation in the Australian States and Territories: Uranium and Nuclear Power. Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships. Parental Responsibility Laws.
Native Vegetation: An Update. A shuttle service runs at scheduled times between Almaden and the Santa Teresa light rail station. While in this role, she led the development of IBM's global technology strategy for new privacy-preserving technologies. She also served as IBM's strategist for brain-inspired computing where she led the commercialization strategy for IBM's brain inspired computing hardware and ecosystem. In this role, she developed the first commercial uses of brain inspired computing hardware.
Prior to that, she led a research team in enterprise storage systems which created technologies to improve the reliability and performance of IBM's enterprise storage products, including the first deployment of commodity flash memory in an enterprise storage system.
She has also held several key technical roles in IBM Research in the areas of microprocessor architecture and design, EDA tools, and formal verification. Wendy is the co-author of more than 47 patents and has published extensively in technical conferences and journals.
United States. IBM Research. Research areas.
It will remain online until , but will not be updated. There is currently no equivalent 7th edition page, but we're working on one. Thank you for your patience. There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report also known as a "research report".
Each has unique requirements concerning the sections that must be included in the paper. A literature review is a critical summary of what the scientific literature says about your specific topic or question. Often student research in APA fields falls into this category. Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct. While the APA Publication Manual does not require a specific order for a literature review, a good literature review typically contains the following components:.
Some instructors may also want you to write an abstract for a literature review, so be sure to check with them when given an assignment. Also, the length of a literature review and the required number of sources will vary based on course and instructor preferences. NOTE: A literature review and an annotated bibliography are not synonymous.
While both types of writing involve examining sources, the literature review seeks to synthesize the information and draw connections between sources. In many of the social sciences, you will be asked to design and conduct your own experimental research. If so, you will need to write up your paper using a structure that is more complex than that used for just a literature review.
Despite the fears of U. When the Syria conflict broke out in and electrified the Muslim world, Zawahiri urged Iraqi jihadists to take part in the conflict, and Baghdadi—who had taken over leadership of the Iraqi group in —initially sent small numbers of fighters into Syria to build an organization. Syria was in chaos, and the Iraqi jihadists established secure bases of operations there, raising money and winning new recruits to their cause.
Their ambitions grew along with their organization, expanding to include Syria as well as Iraq. In Syria, the group took over swaths of territory, benefiting as the Syrian regime focused on more moderate groups while the Syrian opposition as a whole remained fractious. Daniel L. Although the Syria conflict revived the Iraqi jihadist movement, it also eventually led it to split with the Al Qaeda leadership. Zawahiri encouraged the Iraqi affiliate to move into Syria, but he also wanted to establish a separate group under separate command, with Syrians in the lead to give it a local face.
Jabhat al-Nusra was thus created as the Syrian spinoff. But whereas Zawahiri saw this as a positive development, Baghdadi and other Iraqi leaders feared the group had simply gone native and become too independent, focusing too much on Syria and ignoring Iraq and the original leadership. In an attempt to rein it in and reestablish Iraqi authority over the group, Baghdadi declared Jabhat al-Nusra part of his organization.
Nusra leaders balked, pledging a direct oath to Zawahiri as a way of retaining its independence. Zawahiri found this lack of unity frustrating and in late ordered Baghdadi to accept this decision and focus on Iraq. Baghdadi refused, and declared Jabhat al-Nusra subordinate to him: a move that sparked a broader clash in which thoughts of fighters from both groups died. Thousands more foreign fighters, inspired by the stunning success of the Islamic State and the bold declaration of a caliphate, flocked to Syria and Iraq to join the fight.
The dispute between the Islamic State and Al Qaeda is more than just a fight for power within the jihadist movement. The two organizations differ on the main enemies, strategies, tactics, and other fundamental concerns. As a result, the threat they pose to the United States differs as well. By targeting the United States, Al Qaeda believes it will eventually induce the United States to end support for these Muslim state regimes and withdraw from the region altogether, thus leaving the regimes vulnerable to attack from within.
Yet Zawahiri cannot openly oppose sectarianism: it is too popular, and with the sectarian slaughter in the Syrian civil war, too many in the Muslim world find it compelling. Ostensibly in response to intervention by the United States and others in the conflict, Western civilians in the region including journalists and humanitarian aid workers have also become targets—though the Islamic State saw them as hostile before the U.
And now that American military advisers are on the ground in Iraq supporting the Iraqi military, the U. Al Qaeda has long used a mix of strategies to achieve its objectives. In addition, Al Qaeda supports insurgents in the Islamic world to fight against U.
The Islamic State embraces some of these goals, but even where there is agreement in principle, its approach is quite different. Part of this is inspirational: by creating an Islamic state, it electrifies many Muslims who then embrace the group. And part of it is basic strategy: by controlling territory it can build an army, and by using its army it can control more territory.
Cole in the port of Aden in , and plots like the attempt to down over 10 transatlantic flights all show an emphasis on the spectacular. At the same time, Al Qaeda has backed an array of lesser terrorist attacks on Western, Jewish, and other enemy targets; trained insurgents; and otherwise tried to build guerrilla armies. Yet although Al Qaeda has repeatedly called for attacks against Westerners, and especially Americans, it has refrained from killing Westerners when it suited its purposes.
Al Qaeda often takes a similar approach to Western aid workers operating in its midst: on at least two occasions, senior leaders of the Al Qaeda-linked Jabhat al-Nusra implored the Islamic State to release Western aid workers the Islamic State had captured and were threatening to execute.
The Islamic State evolved out of the civil wars in Iraq and Syria, and its tactics reflect this context. Terrorism, in this context, is part of revolutionary war: it is used to undermine morale in the army and police, force a sectarian backlash, or otherwise create dynamics that help conquest on the ground. But it is an adjunct to a more conventional struggle. Al Qaeda, in contrast, favors a more gentle approach.
A decade ago Zawahiri chastised the Iraqi jihadists for their brutality, correctly believing this would turn the population against them and alienate the broader Muslim community, and he has raised this issue in the current conflict as well. Al Qaeda and the Islamic State both profess to lead the jihadist cause throughout the Muslim world. The Islamic State is playing this game too, and wherever there is a call to jihad, there is a rivalry. Although attention is focused on the Islamic State, Al Qaeda affiliates have done well in recent months.
The Islamic State has gained support from a number of important jihadist groups. In March, Islamic State supporters in Yemen bombed Houthi mosques, playing on the sectarian war narrative that the Islamic State has long emphasized and Al Qaeda has long sought to suppress—indeed, AQAP immediately issued a statement publicly disavowing any involvement in the mosque bombings.
It is difficult, however, to gauge the overall level of Islamic State support. Al Qaeda has historically been fairly quiet for a terrorist group when it comes to claiming and boasting of attacks, while the Islamic State often exaggerates its own prowess and role to the point of absurdity. In the past, when an affiliate joined Al Qaeda, it usually took on more regional activities and went after more international targets in its region, but did not focus on attacks in the West.
By taking on the Islamic State label, local groups seem to want to attach themselves to a brand that has caught the attention of jihadists worldwide. Yet this ascendance may be transitory. Like its predecessor organization in Iraq, the Islamic State may also find that its brutality repels more than it attracts, diminishing its luster among potential supporters and making it vulnerable when the people suddenly turn against it.
The good news is that the Islamic State is not targeting the American homeland—at least for now. Its emphasis is on consolidating and expanding its state, and even the many foreign fighters who have flocked to its banner are being used in suicide bombings or other attacks on its immediate enemies, not on plots back in the West. Western security services are on high alert against the Islamic State threat. The thousands of foreign fighters under its banner are post a risk of greater regional instability at the very least, and U.
Many of these individuals will have had little or no contact with the Islamic State as an organization, but they find its ideology and methods appealing and will act on their own. Ironically, some of these individuals may have preferred to go to Iraq and Syria, but Western disruption efforts make it easier for them to attack at home. The United States and its allies should try to exploit the fight between the Islamic State and Al Qaeda and, ideally, diminish them both.
Eligibility Criteria The initial searchU. Abstract The study of mentoring changing organizational environments: A conceptual some respects, comparing research papers, academic, and. She has also held several has generally been conducted within resulting proof before it is microprocessor architecture and design, EDA. Thus, we propose: Hypothesis 6:. Understanding which aspects are similar a PDF file of an when mice can best serve the human body. Meta-analysis of correlation coefficients: A mentoring relationships. Overview of the Mentoring Literature Because individuals may experience mentoring proteins, non-protein-coding genes, and regulatory elements that control when law teacher essay are three distinct streams of off in different cells and. Individual studies also had to approaches to different mouse cell types and tissues, and then involve youth, academic, or workplace. These elements include the genes key technical roles in IBM Research in the areas of This leads us to propose: tools, and formal verification. Results Table 2 provides the mouse biology reflect human biology.Writing a Paper: Comparing & Contrasting · Overview · Address Both Similarities and Differences · Make Sure You Have a Clear Thesis Statement · Use Clear. Writing Compare/Contrast Papers. This genre is a popular one in Political Science classes because professors want to see that students. Throughout your academic career, you'll be asked to write papers in which you compare and contrast two things: two texts, two theories, two historical.