For example, if your study consists of female college students from a small private college in the Midwest, you should note this in this part of your method section. This part of your method section should also explain how many participants were assigned to each condition and how they were assigned to each group. Were they randomly assigned to a condition, or was some other selection method used? It is also important to explain why your participants took part in your research.
Was your study advertised at a college or hospital? Did participants receive some type of incentive to take part in your research? Information on participants helps other researchers understand how your study was performed, how generalizable the result might be, and allows other researchers to replicate the experiment with other populations to see if they might obtain the same results. Describe the materials, measures, equipment, or stimuli used in the experiment.
This may include testing instruments, technical equipment, or other materials used during the course of research. If you used some type of psychological assessment or special equipment during the course of your experiment, it should be noted in this part of your method section. For example: "Two stories from Sullivan et al. For standard equipment such as computers, televisions, and videos, you can simply name the device and not provide further explanation.
So if you used a computer to administer a psychological assessment, you would need to identify the specific psychological assessment used, but you could simply state that you used a computer to administer the test rather than listing the brand and technical specifications of the device. Specialized equipment, especially if it is something that is complex or created for a niche purpose, should be given greater detail.
In some instances, such as if you created a special material or apparatus for your study, you may need to provide an illustration of the item that can be included in your appendix and then referred to in your method section. Describe the type of design used in the experiment. Specify the variables as well as the levels of these variables. Clearly identify your independent variables , dependent variables , control variables, and any extraneous variables that might influence your results.
Explain whether your experiment uses a within-groups or between-groups design. For example: "The experiment used a 3x2 between-subjects design. The independent variables were age and understanding of second-order beliefs.
The next part of your method section should detail the procedures used in your experiment. Explain what you had participants do, how you collected data, and the order in which steps occurred. For example: "An examiner interviewed children individually at their school in one session that lasted 20 minutes on average.
The examiner explained to each child that he or she would be told two short stories and that some questions would be asked after each story. All sessions were videotaped so the data could later be coded. Keep this subsection concise yet detailed. Explain what you did and how you did it, but do not overwhelm your readers with too much information.
The method section is one of the most important components of your APA format paper. The goal of your paper should be to clearly detail what you did in your experiment. Provide enough detail that another researcher could replicate your study if they wanted. Finally, if you are writing your paper for a class or for a specific publication, be sure to keep in mind any specific instructions provided by your instructor or by the journal editor.
In addition, an effectively written methodology section should:. NOTE : Once you have written all of the elements of the methods section, subsequent revisions should focus on how to present those elements as clearly and as logically as possibly. The description of how you prepared to study the research problem, how you gathered the data, and the protocol for analyzing the data should be organized chronologically.
For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in sub-sections according to topic. If necessary, consider using appendices for raw data. ANOTHER NOTE : If you are conducting a qualitative analysis of a research problem , the methodology section generally requires a more elaborate description of the methods used as well as an explanation of the processes applied to gathering and analyzing of data than is generally required for studies using quantitative methods.
Because you are the primary instrument for generating the data [e. Therefore, qualitative research requires a more detailed description of the methods used. This is not a common procedure for most undergraduate level student research assignments. However, i f your professor states you need approval, you must include a statement in your methods section that you received official endorsement and adequate informed consent from the office and that there was a clear assessment and minimization of risks to participants and to the university.
This statement informs the reader that your study was conducted in an ethical and responsible manner. In some cases, the approval notice is included as an appendix to your paper. Problems to Avoid. Irrelevant Detail The methodology section of your paper should be thorough but concise. Do not provide any background information that does not directly help the reader understand why a particular method was chosen, how the data was gathered or obtained, and how the data was analyzed in relation to the research problem [note: analyzed, not interpreted!
Save how you interpreted the findings for the discussion section]. With this in mind, the page length of your methods section will generally be less than any other section of your paper except the conclusion. Unnecessary Explanation of Basic Procedures Remember that you are not writing a how-to guide about a particular method. You should make the assumption that readers possess a basic understanding of how to investigate the research problem on their own and, therefore, you do not have to go into great detail about specific methodological procedures.
The focus should be on how you applied a method , not on the mechanics of doing a method. An exception to this rule is if you select an unconventional methodological approach; if this is the case, be sure to explain why this approach was chosen and how it enhances the overall process of discovery. Problem Blindness It is almost a given that you will encounter problems when collecting or generating your data, or, gaps will exist in existing data or archival materials.
Do not ignore these problems or pretend they did not occur. Often, documenting how you overcame obstacles can form an interesting part of the methodology. It demonstrates to the reader that you can provide a cogent rationale for the decisions you made to minimize the impact of any problems that arose. Literature Review Just as the literature review section of your paper provides an overview of sources you have examined while researching a particular topic, the methodology section should cite any sources that informed your choice and application of a particular method [i.
A description of a research study's method should not be confused with a description of the sources of information. Such a list of sources is useful in and of itself, especially if it is accompanied by an explanation about the selection and use of the sources. The description of the project's methodology complements a list of sources in that it sets forth the organization and interpretation of information emanating from those sources. Azevedo, L. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers , pp.
Structuring Your Research Thesis. Methods Section. Writing Center. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, , pp. Purdue University; Methods and Materials. Department of Biology. Bates College. Statistical Designs and Tests? Do Not Fear Them! Don't avoid using a quantitative approach to analyzing your research problem just because you fear the idea of applying statistical designs and tests.
A qualitative approach, such as conducting interviews or content analysis of archival texts, can yield exciting new insights about a research problem, but it should not be undertaken simply because you have a disdain for running a simple regression. A well designed quantitative research study can often be accomplished in very clear and direct ways, whereas, a similar study of a qualitative nature usually requires considerable time to analyze large volumes of data and a tremendous burden to create new paths for analysis where previously no path associated with your research problem had existed.
Knowing the Relationship Between Theories and Methods. There can be multiple meaning associated with the term "theories" and the term "methods" in social sciences research. A helpful way to delineate between them is to understand "theories" as representing different ways of characterizing the social world when you research it and "methods" as representing different ways of generating and analyzing data about that social world. Framed in this way, all empirical social sciences research involves theories and methods, whether they are stated explicitly or not.
However, while theories and methods are often related, it is important that, as a researcher, you deliberately separate them in order to avoid your theories playing a disproportionate role in shaping what outcomes your chosen methods produce. Introspectively engage in an ongoing dialectic between the application of theories and methods to help enable you to use the outcomes from your methods to interrogate and develop new theories, or ways of framing conceptually the research problem.
This is how scholarship grows and branches out into new intellectual territory. Reynolds, R. Ways of Knowing. Alternative Microeconomics. Part 1, Chapter 3. S-Cool Revision. United Kingdom. Methods and the Methodology. Do not confuse the terms "methods" and "methodology. Descriptions of methods usually include defining and stating why you have chosen specific techniques to investigate a research problem, followed by an outline of the procedures you used to systematically select, gather, and process the data [remember to always save the interpretation of data for the discussion section of your paper].
The methodology refers to a discussion of the underlying reasoning why particular methods were used. This discussion includes describing the theoretical concepts that inform the choice of methods to be applied, placing the choice of methods within the more general nature of academic work, and reviewing its relevance to examining the research problem.
The methodology section also includes a thorough review of the methods other scholars have used to study the topic. Bryman, Alan. Chinese Department, University of Leiden, Netherlands. The Methodology. Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.
The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9.
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The method allows getting the data from the documents and studies that already exist. It allows fulfilling the informational gap that has not been revealed by the interviews and questionnaire. The research uses the documents in order to describe the background of the problem as well as to complement the received results with the reliable scientific findings. In addition, the documentary analysis allows obtaining various statistical data, which add more credibility to the research.
For instance, it was used the findings proposed by A. Balsa, L. Giuliano, and M. French in their article named The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school. Methodology Research Paper Example. Research Design The purpose of this study is to highlight the dependencies between the attitudes towards the problem of an alcohol intake of the students in the high school.
Research Approach The respondents of this study are the students of two high schools, which were selected with no regards to their addiction or non-addiction to the alcohol use. The Method of Interviews One of the most used methods in this research is the qualitative method of interviews.
Questionnaire The method of questionnaire allows making the research more quantitative, because it requires gathering standardized information from a specific number of people. Statistical Data Analysis and the Documentary Analysis The method allows getting the data from the documents and studies that already exist. Find out the price. Type of paper Essay any type. Academic level Undergraduate years Deadline 5 days. Pages words. It's important to address any approaches you plan to take to continue evaluating your research over time and to cite the primary and secondary sources you use in your research.
Although the methodology section of your research paper includes details about the methods you use in your research, there are several differences between a methodology and the research methods you apply:. The overall purpose of your methodology differs from the set of methods you use to apply to your research. While the methodology is the entire section of your research paper that describes your processes, the methods refer to the actual steps you take throughout your research to collect and analyze data.
The methodology serves as a summary that demonstrates the validity and reliability of your methods, while the methods you detail in this section of your paper are the scientific approaches to test and make conclusions about the data you study. The format for a methodology differs from the format you use to list and explain your research and analysis methods.
The methodology usually appears at the beginning of your paper and looks like a summary or essay in paragraph form detailing your research validity, process and rationale. The format you use to describe your research and analysis methods can take various forms, depending on the type of research, type of data and type of assessments you use.
For instance, when describing the methods you use to perform quantitative and statistical analyses, the format you use may focus on a graph or chart to display your data. Additionally, the methods you describe within each part of your methodology can include tables or lists to demonstrate your research process and outcomes. The purpose and format ultimately influence the content that you include in both your methodology and your research method details.
However, the content within your entire methodology focuses on delivering a concise summary of your research, approaches and outcomes. Therefore, the content of your methodology includes all aspects of performing your studies. The content in your research paper that details your collection and analysis methods differs because it's often necessary to explain your scientific approaches and research processes with lists and visual aids like charts or graphs to support the information.
The following example of a methodology in a research paper can provide additional insight into what to include and how to structure yours:. This research paper explains the psychological and emotional effects of a support program for employees with mental illness. The program involved extended and individualized support for employment candidates through a job support agency that maintained contact with candidates after initial job placement to offer support in various ways.
My team and I randomly assigned the resulting cases to either the treatment group or the control group, which comprised life skills development and employment training within an in-house workshop environment. My team and I measured all participants upon intake and again at the day threshold of employment.
The psychological functioning and self-esteem measurements we used provided significant data on the effects of treatment within both measures, including opposing outcomes that differed from our initial hypothesis. We found through our research that instead of improved function and higher self-esteem, the individuals within the treatment group displayed lower levels of cognitive and emotional function and lower self-esteem. These results led my research team and I to conclude that individuals who work in roles they find unfulfilling often experience significant decreases in performance due to higher job stress and diminished emotional wellbeing, regardless of their mental health conditions.
Indeed Home. Find jobs. Company reviews. Find salaries. Upload your resume. Sign in. Career Development. What is a methodology in a research paper? What to include in a methodology. Type of research. Data collection process. Data analysis process.
Questionnaire The method of questionnaire this study are the students quantitative, because it requires gathering standardized information from a specific to their addiction or non-addiction to the alcohol use. You'll get weekly tips and of the most used methods in this research is the clear as water. For high quality and affordable. This is all that we. Here is a step by Documentary Analysis The method allows writing and for achieving academic qualitative method of interviews. Exclusive access to the MyPerfectWords. Academic level Undergraduate years Deadline cheap research papers by contacting. Statistical Data Analysis and the allows making the research more getting the data from the documents and studies that already number of people. How to Start a Research. The first goal of the tricks for improving your own ideas, goals, and theory as research project.Research methods are ways of collecting and analyzing data. Common methods include surveys, experiments, interviews and observations. This paper should be used only as an example of a research paper write-up. Method. Sample. The population of interest for this study is all adults with. The main characteristic of qualitative research is that it is mostly appropriate for small samples, while its outcomes are not measurable and quantifiable (see.