resume de secretaria

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I have an essay on college research paper idea subject: Many people prefer to rent a house rather than buying one. Describe the advantages and disadvantages for renting. Nowadays many people prefer renting a house to buying one, because they think it is cheap and essays property rental don't have to spend several years, saving money to buy a house. I am sure that most people can afford to rent a house and after they move in the house thay needn't worry about furnishing, painting and repairing the free full dissertations, because it has already been done by the owners. However, most people don't realise that renting a house can cost as much as buying a new one. Moreover if there is a damage such as a cracked wall or flood they will be responsible for fixing the problem. If you add the loan and all kinds of expenses for one year you will get the total amount of money you spent on living in a rented house and you can see whether it is worth it or not.

Resume de secretaria type my philosophy dissertation introduction

Resume de secretaria

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These include the administration of quantitative restrictions making it difficult for the annual quota for beef to be met and tariff quotas, exclusive importation rights, mark-ups, price support, provision of inputs at below-market prices, provision of soft loans, and marketing services. The report states that in the energy sector market-oriented reforms in electricity and gas supply, and greater private sector participation have increased competition, although state monopolies and concessional tariffs have been maintained.

Privatization is envisaged in the electricity industry as from and gas by The report notes that progress in the manufacturing sector has been largely based in consumer electronics and communications equipment, automotive products, chemicals, machinery and equipment, and basic metals. However, despite ongoing corporate reforms the sector remains dominated by the large conglomerates chaebols. The report also states that while access to the domestic automobile market is being improved by reducing tax and standards-related impediments, the share of imported motor vehicles to the domestic market remains low.

The report notes that in recent years, Korea has undertaken a remarkable opening of the services sector to foreign investment - notably financial, telecommunications, broadcasting, maritime and air transportation. Nonetheless, both the State and the large conglomerates continue to be involved in several activities. In the aftermath of the crisis, financial services have undergone far-reaching reforms aimed at increasing competition and rehabilitating the financial system. Rescue operations have reduced the number of banks but temporarily increased state involvement in these institutions.

Efforts have been made to allow more competition and foreign presence in maritime services, and to negotiate open skies agreements. Significant developments which may have an impact on the global trading system are also monitored. For each review, two documents are prepared: a policy statement by the government of the member under review, and a detailed report written independently by the WTO Secretariat. Since , when the WTO came into force, services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights have also been covered.

The Secretariat report covers the development of all aspects of Korea's trade policies, including domestic laws and regulations, the institutional framework, trade policies by measure and by sector. Attached to this press release is a summary of the observations in the Secretariat report and parts of the government's policy statement.

The principal economic development since Korea's previous Trade Policy Review in has undoubtedly been the financial crisis that erupted in This crisis, triggered in part by the poor performance and high debt ratios of certain large conglomerates chaebols , led initially to a marked depreciation in Korea's currency the won , a sharp fall in real GDP, and a tripling of unemployment.

The crisis also exposed long-standing structural weaknesses in the economy. In order to address these weaknesses, the Government has been undertaking wide-ranging market-based reforms. These reforms have been aimed primarily at the financial, corporate, and public sectors. Ongoing efforts are also being made to increase labour market flexibility and expand the social safety net. At the same time, Korea has, by and large, resisted protectionist pressures, maintaining instead an outward-oriented trade and investment strategy.

Market-based reforms, including steps to liberalize further the foreign investment regime, have not only fostered a remarkable recovery of the Korean economy, but reduced its vulnerability to external shocks and established a solid basis for sustainable growth in the future. Inflation, after jumping from 4.

The unemployment rate peaked at 8. However, real GDP per capita and the unemployment rate have yet to return to their pre-crisis levels. Korea's successful management of the crisis has combined structural reform and careful macroeconomic management. In December , Korea shifted from a managed to a free floating exchange rate system and since then has pursued exchange rate stabilization.

Thus, the won has remained substantially below its pre-crisis level, which has enhanced the price-competitiveness of Korea's exports. As a consequence of the crisis, the current account balance shifted from a deficit to surplus, albeit declining, largely due to temporary import contraction and de-stocking. Disbursements from multilateral institutions and foreign investment inflows enabled Korea to rebuild quickly its international reserves, which had been depleted by the crisis, thus helping to restore confidence in the economy.

External liabilities have fallen gradually, while their structure has changed markedly as a result of a considerable rise in public long-term lending associated with restructuring. Whereas an expansionary fiscal policy was necessary to mitigate the adverse effects of the crisis, public finances are now gradually being brought into balance by restraining expenditure and raising taxes.

In the face of an aging population, and with the prospects of national unification seemingly improving, stabilization of public debt constitutes an important fiscal objective. Liberalization of the investment regime together with regulatory and other market-based reforms have contributed to a considerable expansion in foreign investment; the European Union EU , the United States, Japan, and Malaysia in that order were the largest investors in Although Korean overseas investment by large conglomerates the chaebols and state-owned firms has temporarily declined in the wake of the crisis, it is expected to resume its expansion in the coming years.

The composition of merchandise trade, which is dominated by industrial products, has changed slightly in response to the crisis and the subsequent recession. The United States, the EU, and Japan have maintained their positions as Korea's main trading partners, although the crisis seems to have diverted certain exports to European markets; similarly, while the importance of trade with countries from the crisis-affected Asia-Pacific region has slightly declined, it still represents roughly one third of total trade.

Since its last Review in , Korea has undertaken reforms in trade and related policies through the implementation of commitments undertaken in the context of the WTO, IMF and OECD as well as bilaterally agreed arrangements. As a result, Korea has become a more open and secure market for its trading partners, despite the crisis. In the face of the crisis and the definitive loss of GSP preferential access in important export markets notably the EU, Japan, and Switzerland , the authorities now appear to view regional and bilateral trade agreements not just as complementary to Korea's participation in the multilateral trading system, enabling a selective and prompt opening of markets, but also as an appropriate response to the world-wide expansion of regional arrangements.

Korea has initiated negotiations on a bilateral free-trade agreement with Chile, with a view to securing greater trade and investment access; similar initiatives are being explored with Japan and Thailand. As of January , Korea grants duty-free access to imports of 80 commodities from 48 least developed countries. In line with its multilateral trade and other commitments, including those with international financial institutions, and with domestic political developments, Korea has undertaken changes in its legislative and institutional framework.

In particular, while the number of ministerial positions has been reduced, as of the role of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been expanded to cover the development and coordination of international trade policies as well as representation in negotiations in this area; it is now the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Korea has participated actively in virtually all aspects of WTO work including the accession of China. Moreover, in preparation for the next Round of negotiations, it has held public hearings in order to ensure that the negotiation process adequately reflects a broad range of national views.

Korea's legislation in trade and related areas includes that on tariffs, concessional entry, import approval, standards, export restrictions, export assistance, intellectual property rights, competition, and consumer protection. Provisions of the WTO Agreements cannot be superseded by those of domestic legislation and may be invoked before the courts.

In addition to regulatory reforms aimed at removing redundant legislation and simplifying other laws and regulations, Korea has made every effort to publish all types of legislation pertaining to trade and investment in English, and to ensure that it is publicly available through a web-based computer network; most public sector entities now have their own internet web-sites.

These steps have greatly increased the transparency of Korea's trade and investment regime. The customs tariff is Korea's main trade policy instrument, and is an important source of revenue some 6. Tariff rates have been adjusted to accord with Korea's WTO binding commitments. In particular, bindings were improved considerably with respect to automobiles and items covered by the Information Technology Agreement ITA ; The average applied MFN tariff is currently The average applied MFN tariff for industrial products is 7.

At the same time, the tariff embodies a certain degree of escalation according at times substantial and highly varied levels of border protection to domestic industry. Consequently, the customs tariff is a potential distortion to competition and an obstacle to the efficient allocation of domestic resources.

Moreover, applied tariff rates currently fall short of bound rates by an average of 6. The consequent, albeit declining, gap between bound and applied rates provides considerable scope for the authorities to raise applied MFN tariff, either by increasing general rates or by occasionally levying "flexible" tariffs, thereby imparting a degree of uncertainty to the applied tariff. Furthermore, so-called "autonomous" tariff quotas mainly for raw materials and inputs are used in addition to WTO-related agricultural tariff quotas.

Recourse to non-tariff protection has been confined mainly to agriculture products and livestock. Efforts have been made to streamline customs clearance procedures by, inter alia, introducing an immediate release system and the progressive introduction of paperless clearance through a computer network linking all customs offices.

Import prohibitions on sensitive items from Japan under the Import Diversification System , and on fish length-based restrictions, seasonal bans were abolished, and the coverage of approval requirements for used goods was reduced; at present, only beef and rice are subject to quantitative restrictions. Overall, Korea has reduced its recourse to anti-dumping actions and provisional measures in this area; nevertheless, it has taken safeguard action against skimmed milk powder preparations between March and May and has regularly used Special Safeguard provisions for certain beans, buckwheat, ground nuts, wheat starch and sweet potato starch.

Efforts have been made to reduce the impact of technical standards on trade and to bring them more into line with international rules; these efforts involve, inter alia, eliminating or easing unnecessary mandatory requirements e. The share of open tendering among different purchase methods has been reduced, partly as a result of the crisis. Government procurement has been used to support small and medium-sized firms SMEs.

Foreign suppliers largely from the United States and the EU have apparently captured only a small share of the government procurement market. State involvement in the economy is being curbed to varying degrees in agriculture, livestock, mining and energy, basic telecommunications, and public utilities. Cash proceeds from privatization efforts have been low, however, as the divestment process in certain activities including public utilities has been slow or incomplete owing partly to the adverse impact of the crisis on the stock-market prices; in , progress is expected on the privatization of gas, oil, heating, telecommunications, banking, and insurance activities.

It would appear that frugality or anti-import campaigns run by civic groups have either ceased or been avoided. Export restrictions now affect only a few items fish, seafood, sand and gravel. All voluntary restraints, except those relating to exports of textiles and clothing, automotive parts to Chinese Taipei and silk waste to Japan , were eliminated as scheduled. Korea suppressed three export-related subsidies in ; it now maintains one subsidy for fruit and flowers. As of April , a Simplified Fixed Drawback Rate Schedule, covering more than a third of tariff items mostly manufactures , has been in operation for small and medium-sized enterprises.

Since , the activities that may be carried out within free-export processing zones, which remain reserved for firms with foreign participation, have been expanded; firms in the zones are, inter alia, fully or partially exempt from payment of duty and customs clearance procedures. Countertrade has been envisaged as a means of improving export competitiveness and reviving trade ties with regional partners affected by the crisis. Several forms of financial support have been strengthened; such support includes numerous tax incentives with expiry dates set for December or whose effectiveness is dubious.

Apart from traditional sectoral recipients of assistance e. Other forms of support have included preferential energy pricing for farmers and manufacturers. In addition to advance implementation of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, protection of such rights has been strengthened by the signing of new treaties, increased international cooperation, and stricter enforcement. Competition policy has also been updated and strengthened to reflect the policy shift against chaebol domination and illegal trading among subsidiaries including those of public entities ; trade and foreign investment liberalization has also contributed to an intensification of competition in the domestic market.

Consumer protection has been expanded in several areas e. Furthermore, in response to growing concern over the environment, measures have been introduced, inter alia, to support the building of "sustainable agricultural zones" and reduce energy consumption. Whereas government assistance for the politically and security-sensitive agriculture and livestock sector remains strong and wide-ranging, mainly involving border protection for several agricultural items, border protection for fisheries has been reduced and is now confined to tariffs.

Since , nominal applied MFN tariff protection has been reduced slightly from Prohibitive import tariff rates ranging from While quantitative restrictions have been eliminated in accordance with WTO "tariffication" commitments, and are now confined to beef until the end of and rice, and minor regulatory and institutional reforms are ongoing, several producers' cooperatives and state-trading entities have continued to implement trade-distorting measures. These measures include the administration of quantitative restrictions making it difficult for the annual quota for beef to be met and tariff quotas, exclusive importation rights, mark-ups, price support, provision of inputs at below-market prices, provision of soft loans, and marketing services.

While observing undertakings in the WTO to reduce AMS, domestic support to the sector has risen slightly, mainly for rice. Given the relatively low level of agricultural productivity and numerous distortions to competition, there would appear to be a great deal of scope for efficiency gains in the sector. While state monopolies e. Mandatory cross-subsidization of the coal industry, for instance and investments in sectors outside its core-business, both at home and abroad, remain a standard practice of the state-owned electricity supplier.

Progress in the manufacturing sector, where a shift towards "knowledge-based industrial development" has taken place, has been largely based in consumer electronics and communications equipment, automotive products, chemicals, machinery and equipment, and basic metals; the sector remains dominated by the chaebols and their General Trading Companies.

State involvement in steel is being eliminated, and a dual pricing system for exports, which was operated by the state-linked firm in this sector, was suppressed in April Despite the use of adjustment duties and tariff increases on sensitive items food products and animal feed, textiles, clothing, leather articles, including footwear, and rubber products , applied MFN tariffs are now considerably below the national average.

The elimination of import prohibitions on sensitive industrial items from Japan has intensified competition for certain motor cars, parts, and consumer electronics. In line with bilateral undertakings, access to the domestic automobile market is being improved by reducing tax and standards-related impediments; however, despite the removal of these impediments in order to assist the recovery of sales hit by the recession, imports' share of the domestic automobile market remains low.

Positive developments in the pharmaceuticals industry include the extension of the national reimbursement scheme's coverage to foreign-made drugs and the replacement of the "standard retail price system" by an "open pricing system".

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Are you sure you want to Yes No. The report notes, however, that because Korea's customs tariff involves different types and levels of duty, it is a highly complex instrument. The report also notes that the gap between bound and applied rates imports a degree of uncertainty to the effectively applied tariff.

At present, only beef and rice are subject to quantitative restrictions while import prohibitions on items from Japan were definitively eliminated ahead of schedule, the report notes. Overall, Korea has reduced its recourse to anti-dumping actions and provisional measures. Nevertheless, it has taken safeguard actions against imports of certain agricultural and livestock items. The report notes that export restrictions now affect only a few items fish, seafood, sand and gravel and all voluntary restraints - except those relating to exports of textiles and clothing, automotive parts to Chinese Taipei and silk waste to Japan - were eliminated as scheduled.

Nonetheless, foreign suppliers have apparently captured only a small share of the government procurement market. In the agricultural sector, the report states that given the relatively low level of agricultural productivity and numerous distortions to competition, there appears to be a great deal of scope for efficiency gains. While quantitative restrictions have been largely eliminated, several producers' cooperative and state-trading entities continue to implement trade-distorting measures.

These include the administration of quantitative restrictions making it difficult for the annual quota for beef to be met and tariff quotas, exclusive importation rights, mark-ups, price support, provision of inputs at below-market prices, provision of soft loans, and marketing services.

The report states that in the energy sector market-oriented reforms in electricity and gas supply, and greater private sector participation have increased competition, although state monopolies and concessional tariffs have been maintained. Privatization is envisaged in the electricity industry as from and gas by The report notes that progress in the manufacturing sector has been largely based in consumer electronics and communications equipment, automotive products, chemicals, machinery and equipment, and basic metals.

However, despite ongoing corporate reforms the sector remains dominated by the large conglomerates chaebols. The report also states that while access to the domestic automobile market is being improved by reducing tax and standards-related impediments, the share of imported motor vehicles to the domestic market remains low. The report notes that in recent years, Korea has undertaken a remarkable opening of the services sector to foreign investment - notably financial, telecommunications, broadcasting, maritime and air transportation.

Nonetheless, both the State and the large conglomerates continue to be involved in several activities. In the aftermath of the crisis, financial services have undergone far-reaching reforms aimed at increasing competition and rehabilitating the financial system.

Rescue operations have reduced the number of banks but temporarily increased state involvement in these institutions. Efforts have been made to allow more competition and foreign presence in maritime services, and to negotiate open skies agreements. Significant developments which may have an impact on the global trading system are also monitored.

For each review, two documents are prepared: a policy statement by the government of the member under review, and a detailed report written independently by the WTO Secretariat. Since , when the WTO came into force, services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights have also been covered. The Secretariat report covers the development of all aspects of Korea's trade policies, including domestic laws and regulations, the institutional framework, trade policies by measure and by sector.

Attached to this press release is a summary of the observations in the Secretariat report and parts of the government's policy statement. The principal economic development since Korea's previous Trade Policy Review in has undoubtedly been the financial crisis that erupted in This crisis, triggered in part by the poor performance and high debt ratios of certain large conglomerates chaebols , led initially to a marked depreciation in Korea's currency the won , a sharp fall in real GDP, and a tripling of unemployment.

The crisis also exposed long-standing structural weaknesses in the economy. In order to address these weaknesses, the Government has been undertaking wide-ranging market-based reforms. These reforms have been aimed primarily at the financial, corporate, and public sectors. Ongoing efforts are also being made to increase labour market flexibility and expand the social safety net. At the same time, Korea has, by and large, resisted protectionist pressures, maintaining instead an outward-oriented trade and investment strategy.

Market-based reforms, including steps to liberalize further the foreign investment regime, have not only fostered a remarkable recovery of the Korean economy, but reduced its vulnerability to external shocks and established a solid basis for sustainable growth in the future. Inflation, after jumping from 4. The unemployment rate peaked at 8.

However, real GDP per capita and the unemployment rate have yet to return to their pre-crisis levels. Korea's successful management of the crisis has combined structural reform and careful macroeconomic management. In December , Korea shifted from a managed to a free floating exchange rate system and since then has pursued exchange rate stabilization. Thus, the won has remained substantially below its pre-crisis level, which has enhanced the price-competitiveness of Korea's exports.

As a consequence of the crisis, the current account balance shifted from a deficit to surplus, albeit declining, largely due to temporary import contraction and de-stocking. Disbursements from multilateral institutions and foreign investment inflows enabled Korea to rebuild quickly its international reserves, which had been depleted by the crisis, thus helping to restore confidence in the economy.

External liabilities have fallen gradually, while their structure has changed markedly as a result of a considerable rise in public long-term lending associated with restructuring. Whereas an expansionary fiscal policy was necessary to mitigate the adverse effects of the crisis, public finances are now gradually being brought into balance by restraining expenditure and raising taxes. In the face of an aging population, and with the prospects of national unification seemingly improving, stabilization of public debt constitutes an important fiscal objective.

Liberalization of the investment regime together with regulatory and other market-based reforms have contributed to a considerable expansion in foreign investment; the European Union EU , the United States, Japan, and Malaysia in that order were the largest investors in Although Korean overseas investment by large conglomerates the chaebols and state-owned firms has temporarily declined in the wake of the crisis, it is expected to resume its expansion in the coming years.

The composition of merchandise trade, which is dominated by industrial products, has changed slightly in response to the crisis and the subsequent recession. The United States, the EU, and Japan have maintained their positions as Korea's main trading partners, although the crisis seems to have diverted certain exports to European markets; similarly, while the importance of trade with countries from the crisis-affected Asia-Pacific region has slightly declined, it still represents roughly one third of total trade.

Since its last Review in , Korea has undertaken reforms in trade and related policies through the implementation of commitments undertaken in the context of the WTO, IMF and OECD as well as bilaterally agreed arrangements. As a result, Korea has become a more open and secure market for its trading partners, despite the crisis.

In the face of the crisis and the definitive loss of GSP preferential access in important export markets notably the EU, Japan, and Switzerland , the authorities now appear to view regional and bilateral trade agreements not just as complementary to Korea's participation in the multilateral trading system, enabling a selective and prompt opening of markets, but also as an appropriate response to the world-wide expansion of regional arrangements.

Korea has initiated negotiations on a bilateral free-trade agreement with Chile, with a view to securing greater trade and investment access; similar initiatives are being explored with Japan and Thailand. As of January , Korea grants duty-free access to imports of 80 commodities from 48 least developed countries.

In line with its multilateral trade and other commitments, including those with international financial institutions, and with domestic political developments, Korea has undertaken changes in its legislative and institutional framework. In particular, while the number of ministerial positions has been reduced, as of the role of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been expanded to cover the development and coordination of international trade policies as well as representation in negotiations in this area; it is now the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Korea has participated actively in virtually all aspects of WTO work including the accession of China. Moreover, in preparation for the next Round of negotiations, it has held public hearings in order to ensure that the negotiation process adequately reflects a broad range of national views. Korea's legislation in trade and related areas includes that on tariffs, concessional entry, import approval, standards, export restrictions, export assistance, intellectual property rights, competition, and consumer protection.

Provisions of the WTO Agreements cannot be superseded by those of domestic legislation and may be invoked before the courts. In addition to regulatory reforms aimed at removing redundant legislation and simplifying other laws and regulations, Korea has made every effort to publish all types of legislation pertaining to trade and investment in English, and to ensure that it is publicly available through a web-based computer network; most public sector entities now have their own internet web-sites.

These steps have greatly increased the transparency of Korea's trade and investment regime. The customs tariff is Korea's main trade policy instrument, and is an important source of revenue some 6. Tariff rates have been adjusted to accord with Korea's WTO binding commitments. In particular, bindings were improved considerably with respect to automobiles and items covered by the Information Technology Agreement ITA ; The average applied MFN tariff is currently The average applied MFN tariff for industrial products is 7.

At the same time, the tariff embodies a certain degree of escalation according at times substantial and highly varied levels of border protection to domestic industry. Consequently, the customs tariff is a potential distortion to competition and an obstacle to the efficient allocation of domestic resources. Moreover, applied tariff rates currently fall short of bound rates by an average of 6.

The consequent, albeit declining, gap between bound and applied rates provides considerable scope for the authorities to raise applied MFN tariff, either by increasing general rates or by occasionally levying "flexible" tariffs, thereby imparting a degree of uncertainty to the applied tariff.

Furthermore, so-called "autonomous" tariff quotas mainly for raw materials and inputs are used in addition to WTO-related agricultural tariff quotas. Recourse to non-tariff protection has been confined mainly to agriculture products and livestock. Efforts have been made to streamline customs clearance procedures by, inter alia, introducing an immediate release system and the progressive introduction of paperless clearance through a computer network linking all customs offices.

Import prohibitions on sensitive items from Japan under the Import Diversification System , and on fish length-based restrictions, seasonal bans were abolished, and the coverage of approval requirements for used goods was reduced; at present, only beef and rice are subject to quantitative restrictions.

Overall, Korea has reduced its recourse to anti-dumping actions and provisional measures in this area; nevertheless, it has taken safeguard action against skimmed milk powder preparations between March and May and has regularly used Special Safeguard provisions for certain beans, buckwheat, ground nuts, wheat starch and sweet potato starch.

Efforts have been made to reduce the impact of technical standards on trade and to bring them more into line with international rules; these efforts involve, inter alia, eliminating or easing unnecessary mandatory requirements e. The share of open tendering among different purchase methods has been reduced, partly as a result of the crisis.

Government procurement has been used to support small and medium-sized firms SMEs. Foreign suppliers largely from the United States and the EU have apparently captured only a small share of the government procurement market.

State involvement in the economy is being curbed to varying degrees in agriculture, livestock, mining and energy, basic telecommunications, and public utilities. Cash proceeds from privatization efforts have been low, however, as the divestment process in certain activities including public utilities has been slow or incomplete owing partly to the adverse impact of the crisis on the stock-market prices; in , progress is expected on the privatization of gas, oil, heating, telecommunications, banking, and insurance activities.

It would appear that frugality or anti-import campaigns run by civic groups have either ceased or been avoided. Export restrictions now affect only a few items fish, seafood, sand and gravel. All voluntary restraints, except those relating to exports of textiles and clothing, automotive parts to Chinese Taipei and silk waste to Japan , were eliminated as scheduled.

Korea suppressed three export-related subsidies in ; it now maintains one subsidy for fruit and flowers. As of April , a Simplified Fixed Drawback Rate Schedule, covering more than a third of tariff items mostly manufactures , has been in operation for small and medium-sized enterprises. Since , the activities that may be carried out within free-export processing zones, which remain reserved for firms with foreign participation, have been expanded; firms in the zones are, inter alia, fully or partially exempt from payment of duty and customs clearance procedures.

Countertrade has been envisaged as a means of improving export competitiveness and reviving trade ties with regional partners affected by the crisis. Several forms of financial support have been strengthened; such support includes numerous tax incentives with expiry dates set for December or whose effectiveness is dubious. Apart from traditional sectoral recipients of assistance e. Other forms of support have included preferential energy pricing for farmers and manufacturers.

In addition to advance implementation of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, protection of such rights has been strengthened by the signing of new treaties, increased international cooperation, and stricter enforcement. Competition policy has also been updated and strengthened to reflect the policy shift against chaebol domination and illegal trading among subsidiaries including those of public entities ; trade and foreign investment liberalization has also contributed to an intensification of competition in the domestic market.

Consumer protection has been expanded in several areas e. Furthermore, in response to growing concern over the environment, measures have been introduced, inter alia, to support the building of "sustainable agricultural zones" and reduce energy consumption.

Whereas government assistance for the politically and security-sensitive agriculture and livestock sector remains strong and wide-ranging, mainly involving border protection for several agricultural items, border protection for fisheries has been reduced and is now confined to tariffs. Since , nominal applied MFN tariff protection has been reduced slightly from Prohibitive import tariff rates ranging from While quantitative restrictions have been eliminated in accordance with WTO "tariffication" commitments, and are now confined to beef until the end of and rice, and minor regulatory and institutional reforms are ongoing, several producers' cooperatives and state-trading entities have continued to implement trade-distorting measures.

These measures include the administration of quantitative restrictions making it difficult for the annual quota for beef to be met and tariff quotas, exclusive importation rights, mark-ups, price support, provision of inputs at below-market prices, provision of soft loans, and marketing services. While observing undertakings in the WTO to reduce AMS, domestic support to the sector has risen slightly, mainly for rice.

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Por esto es importante que la secretaria mantenga una imagen acorde con la imagen corporativa del lugar de trabajo. A tal fin, conviene que maneje ciertas aplicaciones de software que le permitan preparar con mayor agilidad y rapidez tales documentos.

Es la secretaria la que normalmente toma nota de los asuntos tratados en reuniones importantes. Por ejemplo, debe tener el control de los documentos legales que pueden ser requeridos por instancias gubernamentales en cualquier momento. Es quien lleva el control del inventario de insumos y equipos de oficina. La secretaria debe tener su espacio de trabajo limpio y organizado, puesto que suele ser de las primeras cosas que ven las personas ajenas a la empresa al entrar en sus instalaciones.

Para esta tarea suele pedir ayuda a su secretaria. En estos casos, las secretarias cobran sus servicios por hora o por proyecto. Forgot your password? Tarapaca: Gobierno Regional de Tarapaca. Marcel Odena. Cerca en aquest lloc. Cuestiones generales.

Tipos de texto. Mapa del lloc. Deliberaciones, acuerdos y resumen de les votaciones. Pie del acta. Cargo y firma del secretario o secretaria. Anexos opcional. Estructura 3. Estructura Como se ha comentado anteriormente, un acta es un tipo de documento muy utilizado en el mundo laboral, y es por eso, se debe conocer su relevancia, con lo cual es imprescindible conocer su estructura. Deliberaciones, acuerdos y resumen de les votaciones Acuerdos Desacuerdos Resumen de las votaciones 6.

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A tal fin, conviene que maneje ciertas aplicaciones de software que le permitan preparar con mayor agilidad y rapidez tales documentos. Es la secretaria la que normalmente toma nota de los asuntos tratados en reuniones importantes. Por ejemplo, debe tener el control de los documentos legales que pueden ser requeridos por instancias gubernamentales en cualquier momento. Es quien lleva el control del inventario de insumos y equipos de oficina.

La secretaria debe tener su espacio de trabajo limpio y organizado, puesto que suele ser de las primeras cosas que ven las personas ajenas a la empresa al entrar en sus instalaciones. Para esta tarea suele pedir ayuda a su secretaria.

En estos casos, las secretarias cobran sus servicios por hora o por proyecto. Forgot your password? Get help. Marcel Odena. Cerca en aquest lloc. Cuestiones generales. Tipos de texto. Mapa del lloc. Deliberaciones, acuerdos y resumen de les votaciones. Pie del acta. Cargo y firma del secretario o secretaria. Anexos opcional. Estructura 3. Estructura Como se ha comentado anteriormente, un acta es un tipo de documento muy utilizado en el mundo laboral, y es por eso, se debe conocer su relevancia, con lo cual es imprescindible conocer su estructura.

Deliberaciones, acuerdos y resumen de les votaciones Acuerdos Desacuerdos Resumen de las votaciones 6. Anexos opcional 3.